Cervical Cancer

The Cervix

The Cervix is the lower part of the uterus responsible for cervical cancer. The growing fetus is held in the uterus throughout pregnancy. The Cervix forms the birth canal, which connects the lower part (uterus) to the vagina.

The Cervix can be affected by abnormal cells.

Cervical cancer occurs when healthy cells of the Cervix become infected or change. The tumor grows out of control and is called a tumor. A tumor or mass on the cervical Cervix may result from long-term HPV infection.
The changes that occur in cells are initially normal and not cancerous. Some cells can be treated without treatment, while others can develop cancer.
The following factors are essential in the treatment of a lesion.
The size of the lesion, as well as the type of cell changes observed
Desire to have children in the near future
General Health
Preferences of both the patient and doctor
The disease is also known as invasive cervical carcinoma (cervix cancer) if the cancerous cells become cancerous and spread to the Cervix and other tissues.

Risk Factors

These factors can increase a person’s chance of developing cervical carcinoma:
Infection with human papillomavirus HPV (human papillomavirus) is the most common risk factor for developing cervical cancer.
Immune system deficiency.
Smoking. Cigarette smoking is twice as common in women who smoke than in those who don’t.
Age. Cervical cancer is rare in people younger than 20. The risk increases between your teens and your mid-30s. Women over the age of 30 are still at risk. They should have regular cervical cancer screenings, including an HPV test or a PAP test.
Socioeconomic factors. Women with less access to cervical carcinoma screening are more likely to develop it.
Oral contraceptives. Research suggests that oral contraceptives (birth control pills) may increase the risk of developing cervical cancer. They may also be associated with more aggressive sexual behavior.
Exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES). Women whose mothers received this drug during pregnancy to prevent miscarriage are at greater risk of developing rare types of cancer in the Cervix and vaginal areas.

Screening and Prevention


Regular screenings for cervical cancer with HPV and Pap tests can be a good idea. You can also prevent it by getting the HPV vaccine.
To prevent cervical cancer, there are additional actions that you can take:
Refrain from having your first sexual encounter until you are in your twenties or older
Limiting the number of sex partners
Safe sex with condoms or dental dams
Avoid sexual intercourse with partners who have had multiple partners.
Avoid having sexual relations with anyone who is infected by genital warts or has other symptoms.
Quitting smoking

Information about screening for cervical cancer

The tests and procedures used to screen you for cervical cancer.

  1. The HPV Test: This test uses a sample of cells taken from the Cervix. It is the same sample that is used in the Pap test. This test is for HPV strains most often linked to cervical cancer.
  2. Pap Test: The Pap Test is the most commonly used test to detect early cell changes that can lead to cervical carcinoma.
    Visual inspection using acetic acid (VIA) is a screening test you can do with just a few tools.

Signs and symptoms

Precancer is often not accompanied by any symptoms. Early-stage cervical cancer can cause symptoms.
Advanced cancer or cancer spread elsewhere in the body, can cause more severe symptoms depending on which tissues and organs have been affected.
These could all be symptoms or signs of cervical cancer.
Light bleeding or blood spots between periods
A longer and more intense period can cause heavier bleeding than normal.
Bleeding following intercourse, douching, or a pelvic exam
Vaginal discharge is increasing
Pain during sexual intercourse
Bleeding after menopause
Unexplained persistent back and pelvic pain



This procedure is similar to a cone biopsy and can remove all abnormal tissue.
An electrical current is passed through a wire hook. The hook takes out the tissue.
Removal of the Cervix and uterus. The procedure of a hysterectomy can be simple or more complex.
Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. This surgery can be performed if both fallopian tubes or ovaries need to be removed.
Radical Trachelectomy. A surgical procedure that removes the Cervix but leaves the uterus intact.
Radiation therapy may remove the bladder, uterus, lower colon, rectum, or vagina if cervical cancer has spread.

Radiation therapy

External-beam radiation therapy is the most popular type of radiation therapy. This is radiation that is given from outside the body. Radiation treatment administered using implants is known as internal radiation therapy or brachytherapy.
A combination of radiation therapy with low-dose weekly chemotherapy can be used for the early stages of cervical carcinoma. Radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy aims to improve the effectiveness of radiation treatment.

Treatments with medication

An intravenous (IV) tube inserted into a vein with a needle, or a pill or capsule swallowed orally are all common ways to provide systemic therapy.
Many systemic treatments can be used to treat cervical cancer.
Targeted therapy

There are many treatment options available.

For early-stage cancers, either radiation therapy or surgery alone is usually used. Both of these treatments are equally effective in treating early-stage cervical carcinoma.
A combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy is used to treat larger tumors in women, advanced-stage cancers found only in the pelvis or lymph nodes with cancer cells.

Metastatic cervical cancer

Doctors call metastatic cancer when cancer spreads to other parts of the body.
Chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and surgery are options to treat or remove new areas of cancer in the pelvic region and other parts. Palliative care is also essential in order to alleviate side effects and symptoms, particularly pain from radiation therapy.